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drainage systems, also known as river systems, are the patterns formed by the streams, rivers, and lakes in a particular drainage basin. They are governed by the topography of the land, whether a particular region is dominated by hard or soft rocks, and the gradient of the land.The number, size, and shape of the drainage basins found in an area vary and the larger the topographic map, the more information on the drainage basin is available.
what is tributary?
Tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger listing or main steam river or a lake. a tributary does not flow directly into a sea or ocean.
what is distributary ?
Distributary is a stream that branches of and flows away from a main stream channel.
India possesses a vast network of river.the river in India divided into two categories: 1.Himalayan rivers.
2.peninsular river.
What is the difference between Himalayan River and Peninsular river?
(1) The Himalayan rivers originate from the snow-covered mountains.where as ,The Peninsular rivers mostly originate from peninsular plateaus.

(2) These rivers have large basins and catchment areas.whereas ,These rivers have small basins and catchment areas.

(3) These rivers flow through deep nearly I-shaped valleys. Peninsular These rivers flow through broad and shallow valleys.

(4) Himalayan River are perennial in nature, whereas Peninsular river are seasonal and dry up in summer as they are dependent on rainfall.

(5) himalayan rivers are perennial in nature and receive water both from the monsoon and the melting of the snow.whereas,peninsular rivers are seasonal in nature as they receive water only from the monsoon rain.

(6) himalayan rivers are suitable for navigation as they flow over plain areas.peninsular rivers are not suitable for navigation as they flow over uneven land in plateau areas.

(7) Himalaya rivers cause much erosion and have a great flow of water, whereas Peninsular river create less erosion and also have a weaker flow of water.

(8) Himalayan rivers form large deltas near their mouth.whereas,peninsular rivers form estuaries or smaller deltas.

(9) Himalayan River are much longer and deeper than peninsular rivers.
🔸️ what is drainage system of rivers?
The drainage system of rivers refers to the pattern of flow of rivers .such pattern is dependent on the variety of factors such as underlying soil structure ,amount of water, age of river,etc. some of the important drainage system in context of river are as follows:
🔸️what is antecedent drainage?
Antecedent refers to a”things that existed before”. in terms of river ,it refers to river that have maintained their original course even after the rise of Mountain. this rivers have been able to do so because of their Swift floe;they have been able to continuously Erode the rising mountains. the Himalayan rivers of Sutlej and Indus are example of antecedent drainage .the gap of passes between Himalayas are on account of antecedent rivers.
A superposed stream is a stream that forms over horizontal beds that overlie folded and faulted rock with varying resistance. Having cut down through the horizontal beds, the stream retains its course and pattern as it proceeds to erode the underlying rocks despite their different character. The stream erodes a gorge in the resistant bed and continues its flow as before.

🔸️ what is consequent drainage?
Consequent rivers are those rivers that have emerged after the rise of mountains. the existence of this river is dependent on mountains .the main source of water in this river is the melting of Mountain snow .the river that originated in the Himalaya, such as Ganga and Yamuna, example of consequent drainage.
The Rivers which follow the general direction of slope are known as the consequent rivers. Most of the rivers of peninsular India are consequent rivers. For example, rivers like Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri, descending from the Western Ghats and flowing into the Bay of Bengal, are some of the consequent rivers of Peninsular India.
🔸️what is superimposed drainage?

Superimposed rivers are formed on a horizontal bed formed over the underlying Rock structure .the river creates its own way and erodes the horizontal bed. after the horizontal bed is eroded , the river comes into contact with the underlying Rock structure. through it comes into contact with the underlying Rock structure, the river does not deviate from it path and follows its own path by imposing it own course on the underlying Rock structure. the river follows its own path without any deviation. Chambal, Damodar ,and even subarnarekha are example of superimposed drainage.
A drainage pattern that has been established on an earlier surface . Subsequently the pattern was lowered by river incision so it now lies across geologic structures to which it bears no relation.
Himalayan rivers:

The Himalayan Rivers are the rivers that originate from the Himalayan mountain ranges. These rivers are snow fed; they receive water from the melting ice of the glaciers as well as from the rains. The three main Himalayan Rivers are the Ganga, the Indus and the Brahmaputra. These three rivers flow towards the West and collectively form the Himalayan River System. These rivers are also known as three different river systems as they have many tributaries
They have larger basins and catchment areas. Furthermore, the mouth of these rivers, the point where they meet the sea, form large deltas, e.g. the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta is the biggest delta in the world.
•There are list of some Indus and it’s tribute:
River Indus is near Mansarovar Lake, Tibet. the mountain tributaries :are gilgit ,shyok. the plain tributaries: are Jhelum ,Chenab, Ravi ,Sutlej ,and Beas.
river Jhelum its source from verinag at the foothills of Pir Panjal .which flows through the valley of Kashmir and wular lake before entering Pakistan .
river Chenab sources bara-lacha pass. which flows through Chamba district.
river Ravi which is source of Kullu Hills, Himachal Pradesh. flows through Chamba district .
river Satluj which is at Rakas Lake ,enters India through Shipki la and flows through Himachal Pradesh and Punjab before entering Pakistan .
river Beas Beas Kund near Rohtang Pass, Kullu Hills which joins sutlej near harika.
list of some Ganga and its tributaries:
Ganga sources Gangotri Glacier of the great Himalayas .which is formed by the joining of Alaknanda and Bhagirathi at Devprayag .Panch Prayag which country events of two rivers . Vishnu Prayag –the dhauliganga and Alaknanda from the Glacier of satopanth.
nandprayag –Mandakini and Alaknanda. Karana Prayag –Alaknanda Anda Pindar. Rudra –prayag Alaknanda and Mandakini. Dev –prayag Bhagirathi ,the chief stream of the gang’s from Gangotri and the Alaknanda .
left Bank tributaries are: Ram Ganga, Gomti ,Ghaghara ,gandak, Kosi,mechi. bagmati passes through Kathmandu ,which is the capital of Nepal .
right Bank tributaries are :Yamuna, Son. Rihand is a tributary of Son .
the Bhagirathi –Hooghly is the western most distributary .which is beyond farak, its bifurcates itself into Bhagirathi– Hooghly in West Bengal and Padma– Meghna in Bangladesh .second one is Yamuna which sources from Yamunotri Glacier .its tributaries are Chambal, Betwa , ken,Sindh ,Malwa. Dhasan is a tributary of betwa. joins Ganga at Allahabad.
Son– AmarKantak plateau –with Ganga in Patna.
Ghaghra– which is sources at east of Gangotri .tributaries are Sarda and rapti. Kosi–peak near Nepal –Tibet border .which shifts its course causing flood in Bihar. known as “Sorrow of Bihar”.
Chambal –janapav mountain ,mhow. tributaries are: banas ,Kali Sind, parbati. Beach is a tributary of Banas. Chambal is famous for its Ravines.ravines refers to meandering activity of river.
Ajay– Hazaribagh plateau,.that joins Hooghly in West Bengal.
Damodar –Chota Nagpur Plateau ,Palamu District, Jharkhand. knows known as “sorrow of Bengal”.
• Brahmaputra and its tributaries:
Brahmaputra ,Kailash range .which is known as tsangpo , yarlung zangbo,dihang or siang ,jamuna.namcha Barwa peak in the Himalayas makes the Brahmaputra to turn into India.
tributaries :are the dibang, subansiri ,Lohit,tista,manasseh,kameng,thimpu,dihing.
distributaries are :Barak, kaladan
which forms the largest delta of the world along the Ganga.tista passes through Sikkim and meets the Brahmaputra in Bangladesh. Tista waters are disputed between India and Bangladesh .
Ranjeet is the largest tributary of tista. Lohit originates in China and enters Arunachal Pradesh. it meets the Brahmaputra in Assam.
• List of some east flowing rivers;
River Mahanadi –source from foothills of dandakaranya, Raipur district , Chhattisgarh .
subarnarekha,brahmani,and baitarani – West Bengal and Odisha . Brahmani and baitarani passes through bhitarkanika. river Godavari –source from satmala range. largest river system of Peninsular India. left Bank tributaries :are penganga , warshaw,wainganga, indravati ,Sabari ,and sileru .
right Bank tributary :is Manjra.
Krishna –Western Ghats .
tributaries: Bhima, Tungabhadra, ghatprabha ,malaprabha ,musi, hagari,varda, and Konya.
River cauvery(kaveri)–sources from brahmgiri range of Western Ghats. water and shared between Karnataka ,Kerala, Tamilnadu ,and Puducherry.
• list of some west flowing rivers;
Sabarmati Aravalli Range .
Mahi Vindhya range .
Narmada Amarkantak in Madhya Pradesh. flows through a rift Valley between Vindhya and Satpura Range. Which is the largest West flowing river of Peninsular India.
Tapti Satpura Range in betul district, Madhya Pradesh .which is twin of Narmada. and it is the second longest West flowing river of the Peninsular India.
• list of some other important rivers:
River Kalindi –which sources from Karnataka which is the west flowing Peninsular river.
Sheravati – Karnataka Jog Falls located on the rivers .Jog Falls are the highest waterfalls in the India .
ghagar – which Rises from Himachal Pradesh ,which flows through Punjab and Haryana .and enters Rajasthan and dries
river luni –sources are Sambhar Lake , and Rajasthan dries up in rann of Kutch .
Prnneru–Nandi Hills, Karnataka .rises in the Karnataka and runs through the state of Andhra Pradesh to the Bay of Bengal.
Ponniyar– Nandi Hills, Karnataka. IT rises in the Karnataka ,flowing through Tamilnadu, into the Bay of Bengal .
palar– Nandi Hills ,Karnataka. IT rises in the Karnataka and flows through Andhra Pradesh and tamilnadu before its Confluence into the Bay of Bengal .
river bhadar and shetrunji –sources from Gujarat ,these are rivers rivers in Gujarat and they flow in the Arabian Sea.
• important canals in india:
🔸️ indira gandhi canal:
Indira Gandhi canal is one of the largest canal Project in India. it starts from the harike Barrage ,at a few kilometres below the confluence of the Satluj and Beas river in Punjab and terminates in the Thar desert, in the Northwest of Rajasthan.
state of Punjab and terminates in irrigation facilities in the Thar Desert in the north west of Rajasthan state. Previously known as the Rajasthan Canal, it was renamed the Indira Gandhi Canal on 2 November 1984 following the assassination of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi.
🔸️ kommanur canal:
Kommanur canal ,is also called the Buckingham canal, joins Eastern Andhra Pradesh and North Eastern Tamilnadu. it was constructed between 1806 and 1882 along the Coromandel coast.
Its coordinates are 16°21’0″ N and 80°37’0″ E in degrees Minutes Secondsor 16.35 and 80.6167 in decimal degrees. 
the sun rises at 09:00 and sets at 21:07.

    Jhelum srinagar .
    Ravi chamba.
    Yamuna delhi.
    Chambal kota.
    Ganga patna,varanasi.
    Brahmaputra guwahati.
    Sabarmati Ahmedabad,Gandhinagar.
    Tapti surat.
    Mahi vadodara or baroda.
    Gomti lucknow.
    Hooghly kolkata.
    Kaveri tiruchirappalli.
    Musi Hyderabad.
    Project Bakra Nangal multipurpose project, is one of the highest gravity dam .river Sitlej.Reservoir :Govind Sagar lake. In state Punjab, Haryana,and Rajasthan .
    Thein dam—river, Ravi state Punjab.
    dulhasti —river Chenab, State Jammu and Kashmir.
    Salal—river Chenab ,Jammu and Kashmir. Kishanganga —River Kishanganga a tributary of jhelum. called river neelum in Pakistan. State Jammu and kashmir. Hirakud multipurpose project the India’s longest mainstream dam —river Mahanadi, state Odisha .
    Nagarjuna Sagar —river Krishna state Telangana .
    Chambal project Gandhi Saga Dam—Chambal state Rajasthan ,madhya pradesh. Sardar sarovar dam—river Narmada, State Gujarat .
    Tehri Dam —river Bhagirathi state uttrakhand.
    Mullaperiyar—river periyar at the state kerala.

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